NEW ECONOMIC POLICY
The New Economic Policy (NEP) is the state economic policy pursued in the 20s of the twentieth century in Soviet Russia and the USSR. The NEP was adopted on March 14, 1921 by the X Congress of the RCP (b) and replaced the policy of "war communism" pursued during the Civil War and intervention.
By 1921, Russia was literally in ruins. Two revolutions, the First World War and the Civil War, the fight against the intervention of foreign states, led the RSFSR to a catastrophic situation. The territories of Poland, Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Western Belarus, Western Ukraine and Bessarabia left the former Russian Empire. The population of the country has significantly decreased, and first of all, the population of the literate and intellectual, the society has degraded. Industrial and mining enterprises were destroyed, did not have production resources, due to the shutdown of factories, workers - the stronghold of Soviet power, were forced to leave the cities and go to the countryside. Agriculture was in decline, the peasantry was subjected to repression, both by the Soviet government (surplus appropriation system) and by armed bands. The new government had to confront not only its ideological enemies, but also the revolting citizens of the young Republic, whose uprisings were caused by hunger, inflation, devastation, inconsistent economic policy and the brutality of the dictatorship of the proletariat.
The RSFSR was in the political, economic and financial international blockade. Russia could not buy and sell, receive loans and assistance from other states. The first Soviet state in the world did not have a single ally, and the activities of all countries were aimed at dismembering Russia, destroying it as a state, dispersing the Russian people. The existence of the Soviet power and the Russian state was under threat, the current catastrophic situation required radical changes in state policy, and, first of all, in economic policy.
The purpose of the communist idea is the creation of a just society through the creation (education) of a person of a new formation. However, the Soviet government did not have time to educate and re-educate the inhabitants of Russia. The leadership of the Party and the Government of the RSFSR were forced to make a difficult decision to allow market relations in a state whose ideology is based on the destruction of exploitation and private property. The New Economic Policy was viewed by the leadership of the Bolshevik Party as a temporary ideological retreat necessary to restore the destroyed economy, create the material and technical basis for building socialism, promised to the peoples of Russia. The main political goal of the NEP is to relieve the accumulated tension and fatigue in society, to strengthen the social base of Soviet power in the form of an alliance of workers and peasants. The economic goal is to stop the decline of the economy, get out of the crisis, restore industry and economic relations. The social goal is to provide favorable conditions for building a socialist society, without waiting for the world revolution. The foreign policy goal is to restore interstate ties and overcome international isolation. The financial goal is to stabilize and suppress inflation, achieve a balanced state budget, and monetary reform.
The logic of events forced the Bolsheviks to gradually go to the legalization of freedom of trade. Despite the fact that Lenin unequivocally stated that freedom of trade is "a danger no less than Kolchak and Denikin put together," he was forced to admit that a temporary tactical retreat with a partial restoration of capitalism was necessary as a condition for the coming socialist economic transformations in Russia. The NEP became the starter of the economy and a tool for the survival of the RSFSR, but such a policy could not exist for a long time due to ideological reasons. In 1928, the implementation of the first five-year plan for the development of the national economy began, which became the actual end of the NEP. The so-called Five-Year Plans became a continuation of the effective economic policy of the USSR leadership, which took a course towards speeding up industrialization and collectivization. Legally, the NEP was terminated on October 11, 1931, when a government decree was adopted on the complete prohibition of private trade in the USSR.
The NEP was based on the Marxist ideas and works of VI Lenin, on the theory of money and reproduction, the principles of pricing, finance and credit. The new economic policy provided state regulation of the mixed economy, using planned and market mechanisms. The NEP made it possible to rapidly restore the national economy, became and remains the first large-scale example of a skillful combination of planned and market regulation instruments. Currently, we can observe the use of the experience of the NEP as an effective state policy, combining market relations and state planning, in the economic success of the People's Republic of China.
Methods, achievements and results of the New Economic Policy:
1. By the beginning of 1922, the RSFSR had accumulated a significant array of normative legal acts, which, under the conditions of the NEP, had to be systematized, eliminated gaps and contradictions in them, and carried out codification. In the period 1922-1926, the following were put into action:
The Criminal Code of the RSFSR
(the Criminal Code established the following penalties: a) expulsion from the RSFSR for a term or indefinitely; b) deprivation of liberty with or without strict isolation; c) forced labor without detention; d) suspended sentence; e) confiscation of property (full or partial); f) fine; g) loss of rights; h) dismissal from office; i) public censure; j) imposition of the obligation to make amends for the harm. In addition, it was emphasized that in cases within the jurisdiction of the revolutionary tribunals, for which the capital punishment was imposed, execution was used. The Criminal Code singled out the most dangerous state crimes, which included primarily counter-revolutionary ones. Thus, Article 57 stated that "any action aimed at overthrowing the gains by the proletarian revolution of the power of the workers 'and peasants' Soviets and the workers 'and peasants' government existing on the basis of the Constitution of the RSFSR, as well as actions aimed at helping that part of the international bourgeoisie that does not recognize equality of the communist property system that is replacing capitalism and seeks to overthrow it through intervention or blockade, espionage, financing the press, etc. ")
The Civil Code of the RSFSR
(it took into account the presence of a multi-structured economy and the development of commodity-money relations in the conditions of the NEP. The socialist structure was considered the priority. At the same time, the state's intervention in property relations expanded. The Civil Code established the types of property state, cooperative and private. It specifically noted that land, mineral resources, forests, mountains, railways, their rolling stock and aircraft must necessarily belong to the state and be state property. In connection with the abolition of private ownership of land, the division of property into movable and immovable were abolished.Private property included: 1) non-municipalized buildings; 2) trade enterprises; 3) industrial enterprises with the number of workers not exceeding the number established by law; 4) tools of production; 5) values; 6) goods not prohibited by law for sale; 7) household and household items; 8) property that has not been withdrawn from private circulation. Co-operative organizations could have owned enterprises. In accordance with the law, the owner had the right to own, use and dispose of the property.)
Land Code of the RSFSR
(it stated that the right of private ownership of land, mineral resources, water and forests within the RSFSR is canceled "forever", and the land belongs to the state)
, Criminal Procedure Code of the RSFSR, the Code of Labor Laws (Labor Code) of the RSFSR, Forestry Code of the RSFSR, Correctional Labor Code of the RSFSR, Customs Code of the RSFSR, Charter of the RSFSR Railways, Regulations on Trusts, Resolution of the Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR on patents for invention, Code of Laws family and guardianship of the RSFSR, other laws and regulations.
2. Replacing the surplus appropriation system with a half in kind food tax, with the granting of the peasantry the right to dispose of agricultural surpluses, became an incentive for the development of production and, to a large extent, meant the restoration of capitalism throughout the country, since 80% of the population of the state is rural residents. The well-being of the peasantry also increased due to the receipt or increase of the land allotment, as a result of the October Revolution and the "distribution" of land. The abolition of labor service and restrictions on the change of work took place, monetary wages were restored, on the basis of material incentives. During the NEP period, the number of workers and employees in all sectors of the national economy tripled.
3. The use of market relations and various forms of ownership was conditioned by the emergence of legal guarantees for private property, protection by laws and judicial protection, and private property rights. The Civil Code of the RSFSR of 1923 provided that every citizen has the right to organize industrial and commercial enterprises. A permitting procedure for opening trade establishments and cooperatives was established, state monopolies on various types of products and goods were abolished, a simplified procedure for registering small industrial enterprises was established, the use of hired labor was allowed, and the denationalization of small and handicraft enterprises was carried out. By the end of 1928, non-productive cooperatives covered 28 million people (13 times more than in 1913). In retail trade, up to 80% fell on the cooperative, in industry 13% of all production was provided by cooperatives.
4. During the NEP period, the Soviet Government created an effective financial system to replace the previous one, completely destroyed by the civil war. Prices in 1921 in comparison with 1913 increased 200 thousand times. The Soviet government carried out a two-stage monetary reform, and a skillful combination of planned and market instruments for regulating the economy ensured a sharp decrease in the budget deficit, an increase in gold and foreign exchange reserves. Instead of the depreciated and actually already rejected by the turnover of sovznak, in 1922 the release of a new monetary unit - chervonets, which had a gold content and a rate in gold (1 ducat = 10 pre-revolutionary gold rubles = 7.74 grams of pure gold) was started. In 1924, the budget was balanced and the use of the issue of money to cover government expenditures was prohibited; new treasury notes were issued - rubles (10 rubles = 1 chervonets). Stock exchanges were created, where the purchase and sale of currency, gold, government loans at a free rate was allowed. Already in 1925, the chervonets became a convertible currency; it officially began to be quoted on various world currency exchanges. The active foreign trade balance made it possible to carry out the transition to one stable state currency. Together with the monetary reform, a tax reform was carried out. By the end of 1923, deductions from the profits of enterprises, and not taxes from the population, became the main source of state budget revenues. The logical consequence of the return to a market economy was the transition from natural taxation to monetary taxation of peasant farms. During this period, active development of new sources of receiving cash tax is underway. In 1921-1922 taxes were established on tobacco, alcohol, beer, matches, honey, mineral waters and other goods. Excise taxes on luxury goods were increased, and taxes on basic necessities were reduced or abolished altogether. There was an annual decline in prices for product groups.
5. The Land Code of the RSFSR of 1922 forever abolished the right to private ownership of land, mineral resources, water and forests within the RSFSR. Leasing of land was allowed for a period of not more than one crop rotation, while it was envisaged that no one could receive under a lease agreement for his use of land more than the amount that he was able to process in addition to his allotment by the forces of his farm. The use of hired labor by peasants was allowed only on the condition that all available able-bodied members of the economy, on an equal basis with hired workers, take part in the work of the economy and on the condition that the economy cannot perform this work itself. Wealthy peasants were taxed at higher rates. The NEP led to an increase in the well-being of the peasants, the number of the poor and the rich decreased, and the share of the middle peasants increased.
6. State-owned enterprises are transferred to the so-called economic accounting, through the creation of trusts, which, in fact, brought industry to capitalist principles. Trusts are associations of similar or interconnected enterprises that have received complete economic and financial independence, up to the right to issue long-term bond loans. By the end of 1922, about 90% of industrial enterprises were united in 421 trusts. Trusts themselves decided what to produce and where to sell products, disposed of income themselves, were responsible for the results of their economic activities, independently used profits and covered losses. The enterprises that were part of the trust were removed from the state supply and switched to the purchase of resources on the market. The law provided that "the state treasury is not responsible for the debts of trusts." The trusts were obliged to direct a significant part of their profits to the formation of reserve capital, which was used to finance the expansion of production and compensation for losses in economic activity. The bonuses received by members of the board and workers of the trust depended on the size of the profit. Trusts created voluntary associations - syndicates, which, on a cooperative basis, were engaged in sales, supply, lending, and foreign trade operations. By the beginning of 1928, there were 23 syndicates operating in almost all branches of industry, concentrating in their hands the bulk of the wholesale trade. A wide network of commodity exchanges and fairs emerged.
7. NEP ensured the revival of the credit system. In 1921, the State Bank of the RSFSR was created (later transformed into the State Bank of the USSR), which began lending to industry and trade on a commercial basis. In 1922-1925, a number of specialized banks were created: joint-stock banks, in which the State Bank were the shareholders, syndicates, cooperatives, private and even at one time foreign, for lending to certain sectors of the economy and regions of the country; cooperative - for lending to consumer cooperatives; agricultural credit societies organized on shares, closed on the republican and central agricultural banks; mutual credit societies - for lending to private industry and trade; savings banks - to mobilize money savings of the population. By the end of 1926, there were 60 independent banks operating, more than half of which provided loans to the USSR economy.
8. Attracting foreign capital, technology, equipment and specialists. Since the beginning of the 1920s, the practice of concluding concession agreements began, under which foreign companies were granted the right to use state-owned enterprises for commercial purposes. Concessions - commercial enterprises with foreign investments, became a way out of Russia's difficult situation in foreign trade, which was caused by the nationalization of the property of former foreign owners by the Soviet government in the amount of more than 1.5 billion gold rubles and the cancellation of tsarist debts, and the subsequent boycott RSFSR "countries of capitalism". Western banks refused to buy Soviet gold and issue loans for it, Western transport companies did not want to transport Soviet goods, and Western insurance companies refused to insure them. Participation in concessions allowed the RSFSR to avoid claims from foreign owners of nationalized enterprises when exporting and selling goods, while foreign shareholders received large (up to 600%) profits due to the significant difference between internal and external prices for products manufactured in the RSFSR (then the USSR). German concessions allowed Germany to bypass the restrictions imposed on it by the Treaty of Versailles. In addition, thanks to the concessions, the Soviet side managed to agree with some of the former owners on compensation for the nationalized property. The concessions were necessary for the speedy restoration of the industry, to obtain the latest technologies at that time, to attract competent administrative and engineering personnel for the period of training their own personnel. Foreign concessions in the USSR were divided into three types. The first type ("pure" concession) included agreements between the USSR and a foreign company, according to which the latter could conduct business in the USSR in accordance with usufruct, i.e. without acquiring property rights. The second type ("mixed" company) included companies with mixed Soviet and foreign capital (first 50:50, then 51:49). The chairman of the board of such a company has always been a representative of the Soviet side with a decisive vote. In this case, the foreign company invested capital and technology or professional skills, while the USSR provided an object and an opportunity for economic activity. Concessions of the third type (technical assistance contract) were considered concessions only in the USSR. In the West, they were usually viewed as the supply (sale) of technical knowledge, patents, design solutions and other means of transferring technology. In fact, these were "reverse concessions" according to which the USSR received the opportunity to use foreign technological resources for a fee. Concessions were distributed across all sectors of the Soviet economy, the merger of related enterprises into trusts made it possible to immediately transfer technologies obtained under a single concession to all enterprises of the trust, thanks to concessions, the export potential of the Soviet economy (oil and oil products, ore, timber) was restored and significantly increased, as well as such strategic industries as coal mining, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, railway transport and others were restored.
A remarkable fact is that the revival of domestic industry was carried out by illiterate Soviet leaders, so in 1929, out of 770 factory directors, only 25% had a complete school education, 72% had primary school education, the rest had no school education.
Concessions on Soviet territory existed on the basis of the political will of the Soviet Government and the total protection of state interests. So foreign participants had to contribute their share in the concession immediately and completely (unlike the Soviet side), dividends on shares were paid to the Soviet side in the first place, only a Soviet citizen with the right to vote could be the chairman of the concession, the Soviet side could demand from a foreign partner to provide a loan to an enterprise or the Soviet state, the Soviet side could not extend the concession agreement, proceeding solely from practical goals, with the achievement of which the concessions were closed. Thus, foreign concessions in the USSR were welcomed as a source of investment, technology and management practices until they turned into a profitable business that made a profit for its owners or co-founders. After that, the Soviet government in various ways, the main ones of which were obstruction of the withdrawal of profits abroad and labor conflicts, began in every possible way to complicate the work of concessions and, usually, such enterprises became the property of the Soviet state. In some cases, concessions were closed for political reasons. So after the murder of diplomat Vorovsky in Switzerland in 1923, it was announced that all Swiss concessions on the territory of the USSR would be closed, and henceforth the Swiss would not receive permission for commercial activities in the Soviet Union. By the beginning of the 30s, concessions began to wind down due to changes in the internal economic policy of the USSR and the foreign policy situation, so thanks to Soviet diplomacy, only in the period 1924-1925. The USSR was recognized by 13 states. In 1933, all industrial concessions were liquidated, and by the mid-1930s, all trade, in this regard, foreign enterprises ceased to carry out their activities and receive profits on the territory of the USSR.
9. One of the undoubted achievements of Soviet power was the elimination of illiteracy, the widespread education of the population and the development of the public education system, which fell on the NEP period. In 1897, literacy in the Russian Empire was 21%, in Central Asia, this figure was 5%. By the time of the establishment of Soviet power, the majority of the population (about 70%) in Russia remained illiterate. Already in 1918, the "Declaration on a unified labor school" and "Regulations on a unified labor school" were adopted, which proclaimed the basic principles of the Soviet educational system - free education, joint education of boys and girls, exclusion from teaching theological disciplines, abolition of all types of punishment, school self management. On December 26, 1919, a decree of the Council of People's Commissars "On the elimination of illiteracy in the RSFSR" was adopted. Citizens between the ages of 8 and 50, who could not read or write, were> required
10. The flourishing of Soviet Russian culture and arts is also associated with the NEP period. The culture of the 1920s was a time of relative creative freedom, young Soviet art boldly experimented, and these experiments had a great impact on both Soviet and world culture. During the Civil War, the intelligentsia was more concerned with survival than creativity, so the years of the NEP became a real riot of schools, trends and trends with the most bizarre names and concepts: Unovis ("Approvers of the New Art") by Kazimir Malevich, Lef (Left Front of the Arts) by Vladimir Mayakovsky , The Enhanced Observation Team (CORN), the Association of Contemporary Architects (OCA), the New Society of Painters (NOV) and others.
Artists of the 1920s believed that their art should directly serve the new society, so many of them abandoned traditional poster painting and switched to creating advertisements, "revolutionary" porcelain, posters, agitation, preparing mass celebrations, development of clothing for workers. Poets wrote campaign poems, poems, advertising slogans. Many artists became guides of the Soviet avant-garde, collaborated with theaters in the 1920s, developing costumes and sets for them.
Theater director Vsevolod Meyerhold was one of the central figures of the Soviet avant-garde. Meyerhold saw theater not as a banal mirror of life, but as a stylized and even abstract art form. He experimented a lot, tried to eliminate the distance between the stage and the audience. The most important theater of the NEP era was the Vakhtangov Theater, founded in 1921. The avant-garde production of the fairy tale "Princess Turandot" (1922) became the hallmark of the theater and brought it wide popularity. In 1926, the Vakhtangovites suggested that Mikhail Bulgakov write a light comedy for their theater. This is how "Zoykina's apartment" appeared, in which, behind a light vaudeville plot, there was a satire on the vices of Soviet reality during the NEP era.
In the 1920s, a real magazine boom began in Moscow, satirical magazines began to be published: "Crocodile", "Satyricon", "Smekhach", "Splinter", "Projector" (under the newspaper "Pravda"), the monthly "30 Days", in which, in addition to news from working life, constantly publishes humoresques, funny unpretentious stories, parody poems, cartoons on the topic of the day.
Literature of the 1920s reflects the search for an artistic form and plot that could most fully express the content of the post-revolutionary time, numerous groups and associations are created that belonged to different directions of literature: "The Serapion Brothers" (K. Fedin, V. . Ivanov, M. Zoshchenko, V. Kaverin and others), "Pass" (M. Prishvin, I. Kataev, A. Vesely, A. Malyshkin), "Forge Association" (S. Obradovich, V. Kazin, A . Novikov-Priboy, F. Gladkov), "The Left Front of the Arts" (V. Mayakovsky, N. Aseev, S. Kirsanov) and others. The Russian Association of Proletarian Writers (RAPP) is the most massive association of the 1920s, claiming a monopoly in the field of literary creativity. In the 1920s, new stories and novels by major masters of realistic prose appeared: V. Korolenko "The Story of My Contemporary", A. Tolstoy "Walking Through the Torment", V. Veresaev "In a Dead End", S. Sergeev-Tsensky "Transformation of Russia", "The Artamonovs Case" by M. Gorky, "Iron Stream" by A. Serafimovich, "Chapaev" by D. Furmanov, "Barsuki" by L. Leonov, "Mutiny" by K. Fedin, "Rush" by A. Fadeev, "White Guard" by M. Bulgakov, "Cement" by F. Gladkov, and others. Works of the Symbolist and formalist trends (A. Bely, E. Zamyatin, A. Remizov) have become widespread. Social prose emerges, concentrating on the moral and ethical conflicts of the NEP (A. Tarasov - Radionov, Yu. Lebedinsky, Vs. Ivanov). There were works that described the everyday decomposition of the intelligentsia and youth under the influence of the NEP: "Natalya Tarpova" by S. Semenov, "The Birth of a Hero" by Y. Lebedinsky, "The First Girl" by N. Bogdanov. Satirist novels based on adventurous, social and utopian plots have become widespread: "Erendorf Island" by V. Kataev, "The Adventures of Nevzorov, or Ibicus" by A. Tolstoy, "City of Gradov" by A. Platonov, stories and feuilletons by M. Zoshchenko ... From the second half of the 1920s, literature began to lose its originality, filled with cliches, stereotypical plot schemes, the range of topics was limited. In this, the resolution of the Central Committee of the RCP (b) of 1925 "On the policy of the party in the field of fiction" played a role, which strengthened the ideologization of literature and art, consolidated the party diktat in artistic creation.
Not only art, but also everyday life was supposed to be revolutionary. The new system was supposed to develop a new person, devoid of individualistic, "bourgeois" and "bourgeois" inclinations. The institutions of family and marriage were rejected, and a search began for a new way to live and work. First of all, architecture had to organize the space for the "new life". A unique phenomenon of the 1920s was the development of projects for communal houses, in which all property of residents was socialized, and such everyday tasks as cooking and caring for children were solved collectively. Attempts to create new forms of life brought to life the architectural style of constructivism, which is characterized by utilitarianism, the denial of decor as an aimless bourgeois relic, simple volumes (cube, parallelepiped, cylinder) and large windows, up to solid glazing, the use of modern technologies, especially steel, glass and concrete. Constructivists saw their direction associated with the Russian revolution and the coming industrial transformation of Russia and the world.
The Soviet avant-garde and constructivism were of great historical importance, since they had a great influence on the world art of the twentieth century. As Mayakovsky wrote, "For the first time, not from France, but from Russia, a new word of art flew in - constructivism ...". Perhaps, never did Russian creativity have such recognition and attention in other countries of the world as during the NEP period.
Conclusions and conclusions
At the time of the adoption by the Soviet government of the need for the New Economic Policy, the country was in complete ruin and ruin, in international isolation, there was no system of public administration and highly qualified personnel (economists, managers, production workers), the country was torn apart by counter-revolutionary and protest actions , the population was starving, terrorized and plundered by armed gangs, Soviet employees were largely illiterate, the ongoing political struggle, sabotage and sabotage, the heterogeneity and small size of the Russian Communist Party of Bolsheviks, the divergence of views on state building among the leaders of the Party, the absence of a historical example of building a socialist state, this and many other things did not give confidence in the long existence of the Soviet state, both inside Russia and outside its borders. It is in such unprecedented conditions that the leadership of the RSFSR makes the decision of a temporary departure from the principles of socialism and announces the beginning of the New Economic Policy.
The use of the NEP as a starting locomotive of the economy, combined with tough state power and control throughout Russia, the dedication of the builders of the future state of justice, provided the USSR with the highest economic growth rates in the world at that time. Despite the unevenness of the intermediate results, the NEP provided significant successes, so by 1928 the Soviet Union surpassed the economic indicators of 1913, and in 1926-27 grain reserves for the first time exceeded the pre-war level and amounted to 160 million tons. In the 1920s, commodity-money relations, which the Revolution tried to expel from production and exchange, penetrated into all the pores of the economic organism and became the main connecting link between its individual parts. In just 5 years, from 1921 to 1926, the industrial production index increased more than 3 times; agricultural production doubled and exceeded the 1913 level by 18%. But even after the end of the recovery period, economic growth continued at a rapid pace: in 1927 and 1928, industrial production grew by 13% and 19%, respectively. In general, for the period 1921-1928, the average annual growth rate of national income was 18%.
The most important result of the NEP was impressive economic successes based on a fundamentally new, unknown history of social relations. In industry, key positions were occupied by state trusts, in the credit and financial sphere - by state and cooperative banks, in agriculture - by small peasant farms, covered by the simplest types of cooperation. The economic functions of the state also turned out to be completely new under the conditions of NEP; the goals, principles and methods of government economic policy have radically changed. If earlier the center directly established natural, technological proportions of reproduction by order, now it has switched to price regulation, trying to ensure balanced growth by indirect, economic methods. The state power exerted balanced pressure on producers, forcing them to seek internal reserves for increasing profits, and to mobilize efforts to increase production efficiency. NEP in three years has radically changed the economic situation in the country. The Soviet gold chervonets became a hard convertible currency, traded on currency exchanges, and the proposal for a concession regime attracted foreign investors. Businessmen of the largest European powers forced their governments to resume trade and economic relations with Russia. Europe needed raw materials and goods from Russia, and the industrialization that had begun sharply raised the question before the Soviet government about attracting capital, specialists, equipment and technologies from the most developed countries to the country.
The main and significant results of the NEP were the creation of economic conditions for the existence of the RSFSR, the preservation of the power of the Bolsheviks established in 1917, the restoration of the national economy destroyed by the First World War and the Civil War and the subsequent creation of the state of the USSR. Despite the fact that the New Economic Policy of the RSFSR and the USSR allowed the state to get out of the economic impasse, it was always hostile to the Soviet government, which never set the task of transforming the NEP into the economy of the Soviet state. While recognizing the role of the New Economic Policy in the fate of the RSFSR and the USSR, one should not overestimate the NEP, the end of which was as much a necessity for the country's future as its beginning and implementation. The NEP made it possible to carry out a painless transition to socialist principles of management, to carry out the collectivization and industrialization of the country in the shortest possible time. It was the five-year plans that followed the NEP that ensured the high rates of economic development of the USSR, the effectiveness of state administration of which became one of the reasons for the "Soviet economic miracle", thanks to which the USSR was able to resist and defeat Nazi Germany, thereby preventing another attempt to destroy Russia.
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